Additionally, the inhibitory effects of curcumin on the miR-21/PTEN/Akt pathway were significantly enhanced
Additionally, the inhibitory effects of curcumin on the miR-21/PTEN/Akt pathway were significantly enhanced. Conclusion PD98059 combined with curcumin may be a potential strategy for managing gastric cancer. study showed that curcumin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of MGC-803 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. dose of 5 to 40?M curcumin inhibited proliferation of MGC-803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A high dose of curcumin strongly inhibited p-Akt protein expression. With increasing curcumin levels, PTEN expression increased and miR-21 levels decreased. These results suggest that curcumin negatively modulated the miR-21/PTEN/Akt pathway. Moreover, after pretreatment with PD98059, cell apoptosis induced by curcumin was significantly increased. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of curcumin on the miR-21/PTEN/Akt pathway were significantly enhanced. Conclusion PD98059 combined with curcumin may be a potential strategy for managing gastric cancer. study showed that curcumin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of MGC-803 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also found that expression of components of the miR-21/PTEN/Akt pathway were disrupted by curcumin CPDA (Figures 4 and ?and55). PI3K/Akt/mTOR is a classical anti-apoptotic and pro-survival signal transduction pathway, which regulates many physiology and pathophysiology processes, such as cell proliferation, survival, and migration.22 The Akt signaling pathway is frequently activated in gastric cancer and plays an important role in regulating gastric cancer cell proliferation and growth.23 Inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway can significantly promote apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.24 MicroRNA modulates gene expression post-tanscriptionally. Recent studies have shown that miR-21 is frequently upregulated and functions as an oncogene in multiple malignacies.25 PTEN, which is a validated target of miR-21, dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating the Akt/protein kinase B signaling pathway. In gastric cancer, miR-21 is upregulated, and the miR-21/PTEN/Akt molecular pathway plays an essential role in carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer.17 Inhibitors of miR-21 markedly suppress proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation of gastric cancer cells.26 Our study showed that curcumin inhibited miR-21 and p-Akt expression, while it increased PTEN protein expression in MGC 803 cells. These findings suggested that curcumin effectively inhibited the miR-21/PTEN/Akt molecular pathway. Furthermore, curcumin significantly inhibited proliferation (as shown in Figure 1) and induced apoptosis (Figures 2 and ?and3)3) in MGC 803 cells. These results suggest that the anti-cancer effects of curcumin may function through inhibiting the miR-21/PTEN/Akt molecular pathway CPDA in gastric cancer. The MAPK pathway regulates physiological and pathophysiological processes, including proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, mitosis, cell survival, and apoptosis.27 The MAPK pathway is constitutionally activated in many malignancies, including gastric cancer.28 Several MAPK inhibitors are CPDA effective in animal models of disease and have advanced to clinical trials for treating inflammatory diseases and cancer.29 PD98059 is a CPDA potent and selective inhibitor of the MAPKKs MEK1 and MEK2. PD98059 induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells when combined with other drugs.21 In our study,when combined with curcumin, PD98059 drastically increased the apoptosis-inducing effect of curcumin in MGC803 cells (Figure 3). PD98059 also increased the inhibitory effects of curcumin on expression of components in the miR-21/PTEN/Akt molecular pathway (Figure CPDA 6). These findings suggest that there was a synergistic effect between curcumin and PD98059 on apoptosis of MGC803 cells. Consistent with our Rabbit Polyclonal to IKK-gamma (phospho-Ser31) findings, PD98059 can cooperate with curcumin to induce apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells.30 There are multiple levels of cross-talk between the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and MAPK pathway.31 Therefore, blockade of both pathways with combinations of signaling inhibitors might result in a more efficient anti-tumor effect compared with a single agent.32 Our study showed that curcumin combined with PD98059 efficiently induced apoptosis in MGC-803 cells. PD98059 enhanced the inhibitory effects of curcumin on miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling. However, the underlying mechanism still needs to be determined in detail. In conclusion, curcumin shows potent anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the miR-21/PTEN/Akt molecular pathway. PD98059 enhances curcumins apoptosis-inducing effects and Akt signaling-inhibiting effects in MGC-803 cells. Therefore, PD98059 combined with curcumin may be a potential strategy in cancer therapy. Declaration of conflicting interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Funding This study was supported by the Guangxi Education Department Middle-aged and Young Teachers Basic Ability Promotion Project (grant no. KY2016LX237) and Science and Technology Development Project of Guilin (grant no. 20150206-1-1)..