Our immunolocalization results were consistent with this because MKlp2 co-localized with spindle microtubules during all phases after GVBD
Our immunolocalization results were consistent with this because MKlp2 co-localized with spindle microtubules during all phases after GVBD. oocyte maturation by regulating polar body extrusion. oocytes . Furthermore, MKlp2 offers been shown to Glucagon HCl be an essential element for cytokinesis that links Aurora B (core component of the CPC) to the equatorial cortex (or the cell cortex and the growing furrow in monopolar cytokinesis) in HeLa cells [8,18]. Meiotic polar body extrusion depends upon cytokinesis. Because the functions of MKlp2 in cytokinesis of somatic cell mitosis have been discovered, we proposed that MKlp2 was important for oocyte meiotic maturation by focusing on regulating the extrusion of 1st polar body. To confirm our hypothesis, we investigated the part of MKlp2 in oocyte meiotic maturation using paprotrain, a cell-permeable acrylonitrile compound that inhibits MKlp2. We 1st examined the localization of MKlp2 during mouse oocyte maturation. It is possible that all users of the kinesin 6 group interact with antiparallel microtubules . Our immunolocalization results were consistent with this because MKlp2 co-localized with spindle microtubules during all phases after GVBD. By using paprotrain, treated oocytes failed to extrude their 1st polar bodies. Most oocytes were caught at MI or ATI phases. The higher proportion of ATI stage oocytes after treatment may reflect the functions of MKlp2 on cytokinesis. Although cytokinesis initiates, it still could not total after MKlp2 inhibition. These results shown that MKlp2 was important for the extrusion of 1st polar body, which conformed to our hypothesis. We further explored the mechanism by which paprotrain inhibited polar body extrusion. At MI onset, the germinal vesicle envelope breaks down, chromosomes condense and microtubules reorganize gradually around them into a bipolar spindle . As an important process involved in Glucagon HCl the rules of oocyte maturation, spindle assembly and migration are absolutely necessary for the first polar body extrusion. Considering the co-localization of MKlp2 with microtubules, we hypothesized that paprotrain inhibits the oocyte maturation by disrupting the meiosis spindle assembly. Therefore, we examined spindle structure Glucagon HCl and chromosome positioning after paprotrain treatment. However, as with control oocytes, treated oocytes showed normal spindle structure and the chromosome positioning was not disrupted. Taken collectively, paprotrain caused failure of polar body extrusion by some mechanism other than regulating spindle assembly. To day, the mechanism by Rabbit Polyclonal to GPR174 which MKlp2 regulates oocyte maturation has not been discovered. We noticed that the MI stage caught oocytes were also higher after MKlp2 inhibition. It has been shown that Mklp2 and the CPC mutually depend on each other for midzone localization during mitosis . Furthermore, after paprotrain treatment, the relocation of Aurora B and survivin (CPC component) from centromeres to the central spindle in HeLa cells is definitely impaired . Translocation of the CPC from centromeres to the spindle midzone at anaphase onset is critical for the completion of cytokinesis . As an SAC component, Mad2 reportedly inhibits MKlp2 loading onto the mitotic spindle and further inhibits the ability of MKlp2 to relocate the CPC from centromeres during mitosis . Because Aurora B and Mad2 are cell cycle checkpoint proteins, all evidence shows that MKlp2 may be involved in cell cycle related processes. Our analysis showed that cell cycle progression was disturbed, as most oocytes remained in MI stage and ATI stage after MKlp2 inhibition. Consequently, we speculate that MKlp2 regulates polar body extrusion through its effect on the cell cycle of mouse oocyte maturation. More research efforts focusing on the relationship with CPC need to be put into the underlying mechanism.